Biotechnologies answer essential health and food questions and are of interest to many areas such as the environment, industry and agriculture. The applications are based on the valorization of living organisms in order to heal, repair or improve them. Innovations may involve gene therapy, microorganisms or the production of synthetic skin by 3D printing.
The field of biotechnology has two main characteristics :
- a great unity of concepts,
- recent innovations that open up a wide range of applications, from health and food to the environment, information and materials sciences. A vision of biotechnological engineering limited only to the manipulation of the genome appears reductive. Over the past 50 years, technologies resulting from cell and molecular biology research have been gradually transforming many sectors of socio-economic activity.
Biotechnology CMI are positioned in niches of innovation and technological breakthroughs and fields of training in which little investment has yet been made and in which the professions of the future are still largely to be built.
The fields of application of biotechnologies correspond globally to three main sectors of activity:
- natural resource management: it concerns the improvement and modification of plants for food, medicinal or industrial purposes, through varietal selection, the use of GMOs, molecular marking, metabolic modifications to facilitate the subsequent use of plants in processing industries,
- the transformation and valorization of biomasses: they are part of the issues of valorizing renewable carbon sources, reducing greenhouse gases and applying European directives on the preservation of our environment,
- the improvement of human and animal health: it concerns the design, development and production of therapeutic systems, molecules and biomaterials, tools for diagnosis and molecular delivery, for the prevention and treatment of pathologies or epidemics and for functional substitution and comfort therapies.
The biotechnology expert can intervene at three levels:
- design of tools and processes,
- bioprocessing and process engineering,
- analysis and characterization of products and their effects.
This profile is not intended to cover all the professions in the three defined fields of specialisation. Some of these professions are accessible to students who have acquired an initial training including a disciplinary base of chemistry, physics-chemistry, mechanics…